Programming language refers to a set of various grammar rules or vocabulary to instruct a computer device to perform few specific tasks. It refers to various high-level languages, like C, BASIC, C++, FORTRAN, COBOL, Pascal and ADA.
Each language comprises of unique keywords’ set or words that a computer device understands easily and a special syntax that is able to organize various instructions of the program. High-levels of programming languages are somewhat more complex as compared to machine languages. Each different CPU has unique type of machine language.
Other than high-level languages and machine languages, you will find assembly languages, which possess somewhat similarity to machine languages, but of easy to program. Reason for this is that such languages allow any programmer to substitute different names for machines, while machine language only has numbers.
CS and IT professors of a good engineering college in India have explained about fourth-generation languages abbreviated as 4GL. They mainly lie above various high-level languages and represent the category of computer languages, which remain very close to human languages.
Conversion of Program into Machine Language
Irrespective of the language you opt to use, you eventually require conversion of your program into the low-level or machine language to allow your computer in understanding it easily. You have to do this activity based on two ways-
Compilation of the Program by Using Compilers
Compilers transform any program written in FORTRAN, COBOL or any other high-level programming language from its source code to its object code. Programmers write these programs as source codes, which further follow different steps before becoming different executable programs. In the first step, source code reaches the compiler that translates any instruction present in high-level language into the respective object code.
Final step associated with creation of any executable program is to pass the formed object code by using a linker. Here, linker combines different modules and provides real values to each symbolic address for producing the machine code.
Interpretation of Programs via Interpreter
Interpreter refers to a program that executes instructions written in any high-level language. According to CS and IT scholars of any engineering college in India, programmers are available with two different ways to run any program of high level language.
Here, we would discuss about interpreter that translates high-level instructions into suitable intermediate form and thereby, prepare it for execution process. Main benefit of using interpreter is that it does not pass through compilation stage at the time of generating machine instructions.